1. Nanotechnology Contributions at a Glance
Nowadays, it is crystal clear that the generation of energy through new approaches is of pivotal importance in human being life due to the widely projected depletion of the fossil fuel reserves and the rapid increase in greenhouse gases. However, the development of renewable energies products is one of the greatest technological challenges in this century. There is a growing tendency for using nanotechnology in the renewable energies industrial sector, in which most worldwide leader manufacturers are using nanotechnology in many of their products. The renewable energies industrial sector contains a wide range of companies, which are busy researching, designing, manufacturing, and marketing new products to meet up-to-date consumer demands. The effects of nanotechnology on energy generation, transmission, storage, and consumption are numerous. Many nanostructures have been widely studied for renewable energy applications.
NPD consists of data about 338 renewable energies nanoproducts of 35 various types. These products are introduced into global markets by 177 companies, the headquarters of which are located in 28 different countries. The products are classified into the solar cells, fuel cells, batteries, power transmission, and wind energies sub-industrial sectors. Solar cells, solar cell power plants, solar water heaters, solar pool heaters, solar chargers, solar backpacks, solar light systems, solar regulators, conversion layers, solar shields, photovoltaic films, and inverters are categorized into the solar cells sub-industrial sector. The deposition of nano-scaled films (e.g., polyvinylidene fluoride) on the surfaces of equipment, on the one hand, and the incorporation of special nanomaterials (e.g., titanium dioxide, carbon nanotubes, fullerene, and silicon dioxide) into products, on the other hand, ensure drastic alters in the properties and efficiency of the implements. The fuel cells sub-sector contains fuel cells and various materials such as electrolytes, catalysts, cathodes, and membranes, which are used in the production of them. Such nanoparticles as palladium, zirconium(iv) oxide-yttria, cerium(iv) oxide, nickel cobalt oxide as well as graphite are the most common nanostructures which provide fuel cells with thermal stability, electrical conductivity, catalytic activity, and oxidation resistance. Batteries, lithium-ion battery cathodes, automated guided vehicles, power supplies, and thermoelectric generators, which are enabled or enhanced with nanostructures to show high loading capacity, excellent abuse tolerance, thermal stability, fast charging, and self-configuring are contained in the battery sub-industrial sector. Power transmission sub-sector consists of connectors, cables, insulators, cable insulation composites, dielectrics, and monofilaments, in which titanium dioxide and nanoclay play an important role in improving electrical conductivity, thermal stability, self-cleaning, vibration resistance, oil resistance, and waterproofing. Wind turbines and their relevant lubricants and oils, which are commonly based on tungsten disulfide, silicon dioxide, and copper(II) oxide nanoparticles, demonstrate wear resistance, thermal stability, anti-pollution, and friction resistance properties, belonging to the wing energies sub-industrial sector.
2. Best-Performing Companies in Nanotechnology Exploitation
The most active manufacturers in the field of using nanotechnology in producing commercial renewable energies products are American Elements, SunWare GmbH, Sinlion Battery Tech, PowerFilm Solar Inc, Ultracell, SolarWorld Industries GmbH, SUNERG Solar, Risun Technology Co, Lorad Chemical Corporation, Solaronix SA, Kaneka, Shenzhen Shine Solar Co, Luxen Solar Energy Co, Enecom, LDK Solar Co, Long Power Systems, Hosola New Energy, Nano Lube Co, and Omnetics Connector Corporation.
3. Top Countries in Nanotechnology Promotion
Having considered the recorded companies, USA, China, Germany, UK, Italy, Japan, Canada, India, and Switzerland are the best-forming countries in directing manufacturers consideration into utilizing nanotechnology advantages for renewable energies flourishing.
4. Search String
The keywords used to build up the renewable energies industrial sector database are as follows:
Nano + photovoltaic, renewable energy, regenerative energy, alternative energy, wind energy, nuclear fuels, geothermal energy, energy conversion, energy storage, energy usage, energy supply, energy transmission, fuel cells, hydrogen generation, gas turbines, high-voltage transmission, superconductors, batteries, fuel reforming, phase change materials (PCM), adsorptive storage, wireless power transmission, power lines, thermoelectric, optoelectric, green energy, energy ocean, conversion energy temperature ocean, energy biomass, energy geothermic, receiver central, chimney solar, trough parabolic, trough parabolic, dish parabolic, solar water heater, solar heating, solar cooling, solar chimney design, attached greenhouse, solar desalinization, solar still, solar dryer, solar cooker, solar furnace, solar pond, solar heat pump, power tower, stand-alone inverter, synchronous inverter, and multifunction inverter.