As early adopters of nanotechnology, petroleum industry producers have dealt with emulsions of oil, gas, and water, which are made of nanoscale particles, for years, even prior to the recent burgeoning interest. However, the need for integrating technological breakthroughs with conventional exploration, monitoring, primary production, distribution, and refining processes cannot be overstated. The significant effect of oil price fluctuations on international relations, in conjunction with the high levels of private and public investments, propels academia, organizations, manufacturers, and governments towards seeking inexpensive, efficient methods using novel sciences such as nanotechnology. In this regard, so as to stretch the frontiers of current energy resources into improved production techniques, such nano-enabled and nano-enhanced products as sorbents, catalysts, solvents, inhibitors, and sensors have been developed to enhance oil recovery rate; increase drilling performance, tubular, and rotating parts; design lightweight transportation vessels; reduce energy losses during production; provide real-time analytic on emulsion characteristics; monitor fluid-flow; and so forth. From an environmental viewpoint, petroleum-derived byproducts constitute the most prevalent sources of air, water, and soil degradation. Today, the industry is considerably greener since nanostructured filters remove polluted wastes before releasing in nature. A broad spectrum of nanomaterials are used in the petroleum industry, some of which are silicone oxide, titanium dioxide, and zinc oxide, leading to abrasion and corrosion resistance, high strength-to-weight ratio, increased thermal conductivity, and low chemical reactivity.
Nano-based products of the petroleum industry are classified into the following subdivisions:
1. Oils and lubricants including motor oils, gearbox oils, wind power oils, and greases.
2. Paints and solutions including thermal insulating paints, fire proofing insulation, contamination removal solutions, and corrosion protective solutions.
3. Drilling including bits, downhole drilling, drilling fluids, and polycrystalline diamonds.
4. Well treatment including oil and gas well corrosion inhibitors, well stimulation chemicals, fixing agents, sand consolidation agents, gelling agents, surfactants, scavengers, oil stabilizers, and oil-liquid separators.
5. Oil exploration
6. Pipeline
The keywords used to build up the petroleum industry nanoproducts database are as follows: Nano + catalyst, refining catalyst, fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), thermoset composites, thermoplastic composites, composite pipes, pipe wrapping, offshore pipeline, onshore pipeline, drill plugs, frac balls, dielectric insulators, petrochemical process, heat transfer fluid, high temperature fluids, low temperature liquids, fuel, gasoline, petroleum, membrane, filtration, hydrophilic-oleophobic membrane, gas-oil separation package, oil-water separator, oily water separators (OWS), stage separator, trap, knockout vessel, knockout drum, knockout trap, water knockout, liquid knockout, flash chamber, flash vessel, flash trap, expansion separator, expansion vessel, photo electrolyte cell, sealing, seal materials, oil seals, lubricant, anti-corrosion fluid, corrosion inhibitor, passivation, drilling mud, anti-fouling, anti-corrosion paints, oil exploration, hydrocarbon exploration, nanorobots, nanosensors, cementation, well cementing, oil production, rotary cutting tool, enhanced oil recovery, tertiary recovery, environment tools, well test, well logging, borehole logging, well completion, downhole tools, drilling motors drilling jars, motor optimizer, shock tools, data loggers, drilling tools, drilling accessories, well treatment, and enhanced oil recovery (EOR).